Tag Archives: Set up ADFS and Dirsync in Azure

Office 365: Deploying your SSO Identity Infrastructure in Microsoft Azure (Using Azure AD Connect) – Part 3

This is the last part of 3 in the series where we go through how to create a highly available SSO infrastructure for Office 365 in Microsoft Azure. In this part we will finish off the configuration and put all the pieces together. To make it a bit more interesting, I’ve also decided to try out the Preview of Azure AD Connect to configure the AADSync, ADFS and WAP servers.
Part 1 of the series can be found here.
Part 2 of the series can be found here.

If you haven’t already promoted your DC in Azure, the following example snippet will promote the domain controller to your existing domain using the the account you’re logged on with. Note that the Database/Log/Sysvol paths has been changed to the additional disk that was added to the DC. We do this since we need to use a separate volume that is not using host caching for the AD databases in Azure.The server will also automatically reboot after the promotion has been done.

Import-Module ADDSDeployment
$DCPromotionSettings = @{
    NoGlobalCatalog = $false
    CreateDnsDelegation = $false
    CriticalReplicationOnly = $false
    DatabasePath = "F:\Windows\NTDS"
    LogPath = "F:\Windows\NTDS"
    SysvolPath = "F:\Windows\SYSVOL"
    DomainName = "365lab.internal"
    InstallDns = $true
    NoRebootOnCompletion = $false
    SiteName = "Azure-IAAS-Dublin"
    Force = $true
    SafeModeAdministratorPassword = (ConvertTo-SecureString -String 'YourStrongDSRMPassword!' -AsPlainText -Force)
Install-ADDSDomainController @DCPromotionSettings

Instead of using pure PowerShell to configure the servers, I’ve chosen to use the new Azure AD Connect Preview, a one stop shopping-wizard for setup and configuring AADSync, ADFS, WAP against Azure AD. Sounds very promising right?

1. Download and install(AzureADConnect.msi) the tool from here. In my case I am running the wizard on the AZURE-AADSYNC1 server.
2. Go through the Prerequisite and Azure tenant wizard as below. Your Azure AD Credentials should of course be a service Account with Global administrator permissions.
3. Since we want to deploy ADFS and WAP during the installation, we click customize to be able to do that.
4. Single sign on it is! In this example we’ll use the federation service name of sts.adfs.guru.
5. Set up connections to your AD forest(s). Note that the credentials used here should be a proper configured service account. Check out this script for a good way to configure delegation on the service account.
6. In my case I’ll have both an Exchange Hybrid deployment and Password Write back through AADP enabled.
7. Since I have only have one forest/domain, I’m just using the default settings for the next two steps.
8. Import the .pfx file for your service. In my case I have a certificate with the CN sts.adfs.guru that will be imported to all ADFS and WAP machines. If you want to set up this in a lab environment, you can use startssl.com (gives you 1 year free single name certificates trusted by most browsers).
9. Now point out your ADFS and WAP servers, in my case I have two of each (as deployed in the last post). Note that you will not be able to add the servers to the wizard unless they have PS Remoting enabled. This can be enabled by running the PowerShell command ‘Enable-PSRemoting -Force’ on each machine (or put it in the deployment script :))
The server with only lower case letters will be the primary ADFS server in the farm.
It gives me a warning regarding the WAP servers since I’ve pre-deployed the WAP role.
10. Now specificy an account with Local Admin credentials on the primary ADFS server, in order to create a trust between the WAP servers and the federation servers.
11. Choose which service Account that should be used for the ADFS farm. I do recommend using Group Managed Service accounts if possible (requires minimum 2012 DC’s). In the GMSA case, the wizard will actually create a KDS Root key in your domain if you haven’t one since before. Note that this is also done with WinRM through the Domain Controller, so make sure you have that enabled there as well.
12. Choose the domain you want to use for the Federated setup. As it seems right now with this preview, you can only create federation for one domain.
13. Review your configuration. If don’t want to start off by synchronize your entire directory, uncheck “Start the synchronization..” and look in to the following site on how to filter your synchronization scope. Fire off the installation by clicking Install.
14. Installation complete! PUH! If you run in to any errors during the installation, or cancel the installation, you’ll be able to continue from where you left.
As seen above, you’ll also have the option of verifying your ADFS service DNS records.
In my case, I’ve configured the service name to point to the Azure Internal Load balancer IP ( internally, and to the WAP Cloud service name externally (365lab-wap1.cloudapp.net), as seen below:
If you don’t want to rely on your VPN Connection for the internal STS, you could publish the internal ADFS farm through the external cloud service name, and create access rules to only allow your external public IP’s.
And my DNS records turned out to be OK according to the wizard! 🙂

In a very simple to understand wizard we’ve done a normally quite complex task as easy as it can possibly be. The end result in this case is an highly available SSO Identity infrastructure with a little help of Azure IAAS. One thing to be aware of though (might be changed later since this is a preview):

  • Since the AAD Connect Wizard (Preview) only supports one domain, it will convert the the domain to federated without the -SupportMultipleDomain. This means you’ll have to convert the first domain to standard and then back again using the -SupportMultipleDomain switch if federating with more than vanity domain. Hopefully this is something that will change when it goes RTM.
    We have now finished configuring with our highly available SSO Identity infrastructure for our Office 365/Azure Active Directory. Not to hard with the help of PowerShell and the new Azure AD Connect Wizard. I will follow this series up with some additional topics with more detailed information regarding how to create firewall rules between our subnets in Azure, and more.

    If you have any questions or suggestions, let me know!



    Office 365: Deploying your SSO Identity Infrastructure in Microsoft Azure – Part 2

    This is part 2 of 3 in a series where we go through how to create a highly available SSO infrastructure for Office 365 in Microsoft Azure. In this part we will deploy all infrastructure components such as virtual machines and load balancers, all with help from PowerShell!
    Part 1 of the series can be found here.
    Part 3 of the series can be found here.

    As mentioned, in order to automate the process of creating the SSO-infrastructure in Azure, I’ve created a PowerShell script/Hydration Kit that does that for you. Based on input from a CSV file, the Machines will not only be provisioned, they will also be configured based on their specific role as follows:

    All Machines will

    • Join the domain specified in the $DomainName parameter. If you for example would like to exclude the WAP-servers from getting AD-joined, that’s something for a later version of the script.
    • Get the Telnet-Client Installed (Important 🙂 ).
    • Get an Azure static ip assignment/subnet and InstanceSize based on the input from the CSV file.
    • Be placed in the correct cloud service, availability set (if not set to ‘None’) and subnet as specified in the CSV file.
    • Get the Operating System specified in the $ImageFamily parameter installed.

    Domain Controller

    • One 60gb extra DataDisk with HostCaching will be added to the machine (will be initialized and formatted)
    • The role AD-Domain-Services will be installed. Note that the Domain Controller will not be promoted automatically by the script.

    ADFS Server

    • An Azure Internal Load Balancer will be added with the IP Address specified in the CSV file.
    • Endpoints for HTTPS will be added to the Load Balancer pointing at the servers.
    • The role ADFS-Federation will be installed.

    2014-11-26 14-47-53

    Web Application Proxy

    • An external load balanced HTTPS endpoint will be added.
    • The role Web-Application-Proxy will be installed.

    2014-11-26 14-39-03
    2014-11-26 14-44-26
    2014-11-26 14-38-45


    In order for the script to work properly, you need to have the base infrastructure (AffinityGroups, Virtual Networks/Subnets/DNS) in place prior to running the script. Since the script is automatically joining the VM’s to the domain specified, you need to have connectivity to your local domain as well.
    The Default WinRM Endpoint is used to configure the machines, which means you might get issues if your firewall is blocking high ports, such as in the screenshot below.
    2014-11-26 14-05-59

    The Azure PowerShell module do of course need to be installed on the machine you are running the script.

    1. First, download the script and the csv sample file from here.
    2. Edit the csv file according to your needs, make sure that you put the related servers (WAP, ADFS) in the same CloudService, Subnet and Availabilityset etc. For the ADFS servers, you also need to add the Internal Load Balancer IP in the InternalLB column.
    2014-11-26 15-08-14
    3. Run the script. Remember to change the parameters to match your Azure tenant configuration.If you haven’t already added your Account to the session, you will be prompted to do so. You will find screenshots of the steps below. If you lose your Azure session (internet problems etc.) while running, the script can safely be restarted, and will pickup where it stopped after some verification steps.

    .\CreateO365AzureEnvironment.ps1 -Verbose -InputFile .\AzureMachines.csv

    a. Prompted for domain join credentials
    2014-11-26 12-59-23
    b. Prompted to set local admin credentials for the new servers
    2014-11-26 12-59-57
    c. Prompted for Azure tenant credentials
    2014-11-26 15-28-03
    4. Grab some coffee and watch PowerShell do the magic. The entire deployment has taken between 35-45 minutes when I’ve been running it. If you don’t like having the WinRM Endpoint on each exposed to the internet, you need to remove them manually after deployment.
    2014-11-26 15-00-16


        The scripts creates and configures virtual machines in Microsoft Azure based on an input CSV file.
       .\CreateO365AzureEnvironment.ps1 -InputFile '.\AzureMachines.csv' -Verbose
        File Name: CreateO365AzureEnvironment.ps1
        Author   : Johan Dahlbom, johan[at]dahlbom.eu
        Blog     : 365lab.net
        The script are provided “AS IS” with no guarantees, no warranties, and they confer no rights.
        Requires PowerShell Version 3.0!
    param (
      [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)][string]$AffinityGroup = '365lab-affinitygroup',
      [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)][string]$DomainName = '365lab.internal',
      [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)][string]$DomainShort = '365lab',
      [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)][string]$ImageFamily = 'Windows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter',
      [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)][string]$VnetName = '365lab-azure',
      [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)][string]$AdminUsername = '365_admin',
      [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)][ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]$DomainJoinCreds = (Get-Credential -Message 'Please enter credentials to join the server to the domain'),
      [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)][ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]$VMCredentials = (Get-Credential -Message 'Please enter the local admin password for the servers' -UserName $AdminUsername),
      [Parameter(Mandatory=$false)][ValidateScript({Import-Csv -Path $_})]$InputFile =  '.\AzureMachines.csv'
    #Check that script is running in an elevated command prompt
    if (-not([Security.Principal.WindowsPrincipal] [Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity]::GetCurrent()).IsInRole("S-1-5-32-544")) {
      Write-Warning "You need to have Administrator rights to run this script!`nPlease re-run this script as an Administrator in an elevated powershell prompt!"
    #region functions
    function Connect-Azure {
      begin {
          try {
              Import-Module Azure
          } catch {
              throw "Azure module not installed"
      } process {
        if (-not(Get-AzureSubscription -ErrorAction Ignore).IsCurrent -eq $true) {
          try {
            Add-AzureAccount -WarningAction stop -ErrorAction Stop
          } catch {
            throw "No connection to Azure"
      } end {
        $AzureSubscription = Get-AzureSubscription -Default -ErrorAction Ignore
        Set-AzureSubscription -SubscriptionId $AzureSubscription.SubscriptionId -CurrentStorageAccountName (Get-AzureStorageAccount -WarningAction Ignore).StorageAccountName
        Write-Verbose "Connected to Azure"
    function Configure-JDAzureVM {
      begin {
        Write-Verbose "Starting to configure $VM..."
      process {
        #Install mandatory features
        $AzureVM = Get-AzureVM -ServiceName $CloudService -Name $VM
        #Establish a PS Session to the AzureVM
        $SessionOptions = New-PSSessionOption -SkipCACheck -SkipCNCheck
        $VMSessionConfig = @{
          ConnectionUri = $VMUri
          SessionOption = $SessionOptions
          Credential = $VMCredentials
        $VMSession = New-PSSession @VMSessionConfig -ErrorAction Stop
        #Install mandatory features
        Write-Verbose "Installing mandatory features on $VM"
        Invoke-Command -Session $VMSession -ScriptBlock {
          #Install the MOST IMPORTANT FEATURE of them all!
          Add-WindowsFeature -Name Telnet-Client -IncludeManagementTools -WarningAction Ignore
        #Install features per role
        Write-Verbose "$VM is $Role."
        switch ($Role) {
        'Domain Controller' {
          #Add additional data disk to the domain controller, with host caching disabled
          if (-not(Get-AzureDataDisk -VM $AzureVM)) {
            Write-Verbose "Adding additional data disk..."
            Add-AzureDataDisk -CreateNew -DiskSizeInGB 60 -DiskLabel "ADDB" -HostCaching None -LUN 0 -VM $AzureVM | Update-AzureVM -ErrorAction Stop
          Write-Verbose "Installing role 'AD-Domain-Services'"
          Invoke-Command -Session $VMSession -ScriptBlock {
            #Initialize and format additional disks
            Get-Disk | Where-Object {$_.PartitionStyle -eq 'raw'} | Initialize-Disk -PartitionStyle MBR -PassThru | New-Partition -AssignDriveLetter -UseMaximumSize |
                Format-Volume -FileSystem NTFS -NewFileSystemLabel "ADDB" -Confirm:$false
            #Install Role specific features
            Add-WindowsFeature -Name AD-Domain-Services -IncludeManagementTools -WarningAction Ignore
        } 'ADFS Server' {
          #Create Internal Load Balancer for the ADFS farm if not already created
          if (-not(Get-AzureInternalLoadBalancer -ServiceName $CloudService) -and $InternalLBIP) {
            Write-Verbose "Creating/adding $vm to Internal Load Balancer $($AzureVM.AvailabilitySetName) ($InternalLBIP)"
            Add-AzureInternalLoadBalancer -ServiceName $CloudService -InternalLoadBalancerName $azurevm.AvailabilitySetName -SubnetName $Subnet -StaticVNetIPAddress $InternalLBIP
          #Add the server to the Internal Load Balanced set and add 443 as endpoint
          if (-not((Get-AzureEndpoint -VM $AzureVM).InternalLoadBalancerName -eq $AzureVM.AvailabilitySetName)) {
            Write-Verbose "Adding Internal Load Balanced endpoint on port 443 to $VM"
            Add-AzureEndpoint -Name HTTPS -Protocol tcp -LocalPort 443 -PublicPort 443 -LBSetName $AzureVM.AvailabilitySetName -InternalLoadBalancerName $AzureVM.AvailabilitySetName -VM $AzureVM -DefaultProbe | Update-AzureVM -ErrorAction Stop
          Write-Verbose "Installing role 'ADFS-Federation'"
          Invoke-Command -Session $VMSession -ScriptBlock {
            #Install Role specific features
            Add-WindowsFeature -Name ADFS-Federation -IncludeManagementTools -WarningAction Ignore
        } 'Web Application Proxy' {
          #Add the server to the Cloud Service Load Balanced set and add 443 as endpoint
          if (-not((Get-AzureEndpoint -VM $AzureVM).LBSetName -eq $AzureVM.AvailabilitySetName)) {
            Write-Verbose "Adding Load Balanced endpoint on port 443 to $CloudService.cloudapp.net"
            Add-AzureEndpoint -Name HTTPS -Protocol tcp -LocalPort 443 -PublicPort 443 -LBSetName $AzureVM.AvailabilitySetName -VM $AzureVM -DefaultProbe -LoadBalancerDistribution sourceIP | Update-AzureVM -ErrorAction Stop
          Write-Verbose "Installing role 'Web-Application-Proxy'"
          Invoke-Command -Session $VMSession -ScriptBlock {
            #Install Role specific features
            Add-WindowsFeature -Name Web-Application-Proxy -IncludeManagementTools -WarningAction Ignore
      end {
        Write-Verbose "Finished configuring $VM" 
    function New-JDAzureVM {
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)][ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()][string]$VMName = '',
      if (-not(Get-AzureVM -ServiceName $CloudService -Name $VMName -WarningAction Ignore))  {
        #region VM Configuration
        #Get the latest VM image based on the operating system choice
        $ImageName = (Get-AzureVMImage | Where-Object {$_.ImageFamily -eq $OperatingSystem} | Sort-Object -Property PublishedDate -Descending | Select-Object -First 1).ImageName
        #Construct VM Configuration
        $VMConfigHash = @{
          Name =  $VMName
          InstanceSize = $Size
          ImageName = $ImageName
        if ($AvailabilitySet -ne 'None') {
          $VMConfigHash["AvailabilitySetName"] = $AvailabilitySet
        #VM Provisioning details
        $VMProvisionHash = @{
          AdminUsername = $VMCredentials.UserName
          Password = $VMCredentials.GetNetworkCredential().Password
          JoinDomain = $DomainName
          DomainUserName = $DomainJoinCreds.UserName.split("\")[1]
          DomainPassword = $DomainJoinCreds.GetNetworkCredential().Password
          Domain = $DomainShort
        #Create VM configuration before deploying the new VM
        $VMConfig = New-AzureVMConfig @VMConfigHash | Add-AzureProvisioningConfig @VMProvisionHash -WindowsDomain -NoRDPEndpoint |
                        Set-AzureStaticVNetIP -IPAddress $IPAddress | Set-AzureSubnet -SubnetNames $SubnetName |
                            Set-AzureVMBGInfoExtension -ReferenceName 'BGInfo'
        #endregion VM Configuration
        #region Create VM
        Write-Verbose "Creating $VMName in the Cloud Service $CloudService"
        $AzureVMHash = @{
          ServiceName = $CloudService
          VMs = $VMConfig
          VnetName = $VnetName
          AffinityGroup  = $AffinityGroup
        New-AzureVM @AzureVMHash -WaitForBoot -ErrorAction Stop -WarningAction Ignore
        #endregion Create VM
      } else {
        Write-Warning "$VMName do already exist..."
     #endregion functions
     #Connect with Azure PowerShell
      $AzureMachines = Import-Csv -Path $InputFile
      Write-Verbose "Starting deployment of machines at: $(Get-date -format u)"
    foreach ($Machine in $AzureMachines) {
      Write-Verbose "Starting to process $($Machine.Name)"
      #Create VM Configuration hashtable based on input from CSV file
      $VirtualMachine = @{
        VMName = $Machine.Name
        CloudService = $Machine.CloudService
        IPAddress = $Machine.IP
        VMCredentials = $VMCredentials
        DomainJoinCreds = $DomainJoinCreds
        SubnetName = $Machine.SubnetName
        AvailabilitySet = $Machine.AvailabilitySet
        AffinityGroup = $AffinityGroup
        Size = $Machine.Size
        VnetName = $VnetName
        OperatingSystem = $ImageFamily
      try {
        #Create virtual machine
        New-JDAzureVM @VirtualMachine -ErrorAction Stop
        #Wait for machine to get to the state "ReadyRole" before continuing.
        while ((Get-AzureVM -ServiceName $Machine.CloudService -Name $Machine.Name).status -ne "ReadyRole") {
          Write-Verbose "Waiting for $($Machine.Name) to start..."
          Start-Sleep -Seconds 15
        $VMUri = Get-AzureWinRMUri -ServiceName $machine.CloudService -Name $Machine.Name
        #Create VM Role configuration
        $VMRoleConfiguration = @{
          Role = $Machine.Role
          VMUri = $VMUri
          VMCredentials = $VMCredentials
          VM = $Machine.Name
          CloudService = $Machine.CloudService
          Subnet = $machine.SubnetName
        #Add internal load balancer IP to the role configuration
        if ($Machine.InternalLB) {
          $VMRoleConfiguration["InternalLBIP"] = $Machine.InternalLB
        #Role specific configuration of the virtual machine
        Configure-JDAzureVM @VMRoleConfiguration -ErrorAction Stop
      } catch {
        Write-Warning $_
    Write-Verbose "Finished deployment of machines at: $(Get-date -format u)"

    After some waiting for the provisioning, we now have the infrastructure in place in order to complete the configuration of our SSO infrastructure for Office 365 in Microsoft Azure. In the next part of this series we will put all the pieces together and finish AADSync, ADFS and WAP configuration against Office 365 / Azure Active Directory.
    2014-11-26 15-54-05

    Enjoy, let me know if you have any feedback!


    Office 365: Deploying your SSO Identity Infrastructure in Microsoft Azure – Part 1

    This is part 1 of 3 in a series where we go through how to create a highly available SSO infrastructure for Office 365 in Microsoft Azure.
    Part 2 of the series can be found here.
    Part 3 of the series can be found here.

    Implementing SSO infrastructure with ADFS is something many customers want in order to reduce the amount of logins for their end users. Soon we will even get single sign on in the Outlook client! (YAY 🙂 ) The biggest challenge implementing the infrastructure is that you get dependent on your local server infrastructure and internet connection.
    When it’s not possible to make the solution redundant with you own infrastructure, but still need single signon, my recommendation is to deploy the SSO infrastructure in Microsoft Azure.

    Microsoft has provided a white paper on the topic that gives you an idea on what options you have and important things to consider. The White paper describes two deployment options implementing the infrastructure in Azure.

    1. All Office 365 SSO integration components deployed in Azure. This is cloud-only approach; you deploy directory synchronization and AD FS in Azure. This eliminates the need to deploy on-premises servers.
    2. Some Office 365 SSO integration components deployed in Azure for disaster recovery. This is the mix of on-premises and cloud-deployed components; you deploy directory synchronization and AD FS, primarily on-premises and add redundant components in Azure for disaster recovery.

    Option 1 to put the entire Identity Infrastructure in the cloud has been the choice for most of the implementations I’ve been involved in. This gives you a very flexible solution that will provide you a highly available SSO infrastructure, yet putting the infrastructure near the services you are providing.

    In order to set it up in a highly available SSO infrastructure in Azure, the following components/servers must be deployed in Azure. Recommendations on the high-level architecture is also described on http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn509538.aspx.

    First of all, if you’re setting up your Azure Infrastructure from scratch, you need a virtual network and a storage account in the region that is closest/best for you (in my case, North Europe). See the following tutorials on how to create a virtual network, a storage account and an affinity group.

    In my example – the virtual network in Azure is configured as follows:

    2014-11-22 13-42-09

    The network is divided into two subnets except for the gateway subnet. One “Internal” subnet and one “Perimeter” subnet in order to filter traffic based on the source/destination IP, that is now possible through Network Security Groups (NSG’s) in Azure. A local network has also been added for on-premises connectivity.

    In my example, I will deploy six(6) virtual Machines with the following roles:

    Name Role IP Size Cloud Service Availability Set
    AZURE-DC1 Domain Controller Small 365lab-azr01
    AZURE-AADSYNC1 DirSync/AADSync Medium 365lab-azr01
    AZURE-ADFS01 ADFS Server Small 365lab-sts sts-365lab
    AZURE-ADFS02 ADFS Server Small 365lab-sts sts-365lab
    AZURE-WAP01 Web Application Proxy Small 365lab-wap wap-365lab
    AZURE-WAP02 Web Application Proxy Small 365lab-wap wap-365lab

    In this case, I’m choosing to deploy only one domain controller in Azure, and configure that one as the primary dns for the virtual network, and the local network domain controllers as secondary dns servers. Note that the ADFS and WAP servers are placed in separate cloud services/availability sets in order to make them highly available.
    You will find a reference regarding machine sizing here. Estimated costs per month for the above setup will with list pricing be around $500 including network traffic and storage. The exact pricing will of course be depend on your Azure agreement and network traffic.


    The overall high level design of the setup will be as in the following sketch:

    In the next part of the series, we will deploy the virtual Machines with the proper configuration using Azure PowerShell.

    Until next time!